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Front of the Knee Injuries and Conditions Explained

Quadriceps Tendonitis

A condition causing pain in the quadriceps tendon, which connects the quadriceps muscle to the patella (kneecap). It is a tendinitis often caused by overuse or repetitive strain, particularly in sports involving jumping or running.

Quads Tendon Rupture

A serious injury occurs when the quadriceps tendon tears or ruptures, usually due to sudden, forceful contraction of the quadriceps muscle or a direct blow to the front of the knee.

The quadriceps tendon is a strong, fibrous band of tissue that connects the quadriceps muscle to the patella (kneecap) and allows us to straighten our leg. When the tendon ruptures, it can cause severe pain, swelling, and bruising in the knee, as well as difficulty straightening the leg or bearing weight on the affected leg.

ITB Syndrome

Also known as iliotibial band syndrome, it is a common overuse injury that affects the iliotibial band, a thick band of fibrous tissue that runs from the hip to the knee along the outside of the thigh.

The iliotibial band helps stabilise the knee joint during movement and is essential for running, jumping, or climbing activities. With ITB syndrome, the iliotibial band becomes inflamed, resulting in pain and discomfort along the outside of the knee.

Lateral Meniscus Tear

A lateral meniscus tear is a type of knee injury involving a tear or rupture in the lateral meniscus, one of the two C-shaped cartilage in the knee joint.

Lateral meniscus tears can occur due to a sudden twisting or pivoting motion or repetitive wear and tear on the knee joint over time.

LCL Injury

An LCL injury, or lateral collateral ligament injury, is a type of knee injury affecting the lateral collateral ligament, a strong band of fibrous tissue outside the knee joint.

The LCL prevent excessive side-to-side movement of the knee.

Dislocated Patella

A dislocated patella, also known as a kneecap dislocation, is a condition that occurs when the patella (kneecap) is forced out of its normal position in the groove at the end of the thigh bone (femur). This can happen due to a sudden twisting or direct impact on the knee, such as in a sports-related injury or fall.

Patellar Tendonitis

Patellar tendonitis is a common overuse injury, often seen in athletes who participate in repetitive jumping, running, or other high-impact movements.

Patellar tendonitis, also known as jumper's knee, is a condition that occurs when the patellar tendon, which connects the patella (kneecap) to the shin bone, becomes inflamed and irritated.

Osgood Schlatters Disease

Schlatter's disease, also known as Osgood-Schlatter disease, is a common cause of knee pain in adolescents. It is a condition that affects the growth plate located at the front of the knee, where the patellar tendon attaches to the shin bone.

Schlatter's disease typically occurs when the bones and muscles develop rapidly during a growth spurt.

Osteochondritis Dissecans

Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD) is a condition that occurs when a small piece of bone and cartilage, called articular cartilage, separates from the underlying bone in a joint. This can happen most commonly in the knee and other joints like the elbow and ankle.

The cause of osteochondritis dissecans is not entirely clear, but it is thought to be related to repetitive trauma or injury to the joint.

Infrapatellar bursitis

A bursa is a small fluid-filled sac that cushions between bones and tendons to reduce friction and irritation during movement. Infrapatellar bursitis is a condition that occurs when the bursa located beneath the kneecap becomes inflamed and swollen.

MCL Sprain

An MCL sprain is a common knee injury involving damage to the medial collateral ligament (MCL), a band of tissue that runs inside the knee joint. The MCL is responsible for stabilising the knee and preventing excessive side-to-side movement.

An MCL sprain typically occurs when the knee is hit from the outside, causing the ligament to stretch or tear.

Medial Meniscus Tear

The medial meniscus is a C-shaped piece of cartilage located on the inner side of the knee joint. It acts as a shock absorber and helps to distribute weight and force evenly across the knee.


Arthritis is a term used to describe a group of conditions that cause inflammation and pain in the joints. There are many types of arthritis, but the most common are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis.

Osteoarthritis is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the cartilage that cushions the joints wears down over time, causing the bones to rub against each other. This can result in pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion.

Rheumatoid arthritis, on the other hand, is an autoimmune disease that occurs when the body's immune system attacks the lining of the joints, causing inflammation and pain. This can lead to joint damage and deformity over time.

Other types of arthritis include psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout.

Symptoms of arthritis may include joint pain, stiffness, swelling, and decreased range of motion. In some cases, there may also be fatigue, fever, or a general feeling of malaise.

Pes Anserine Bursitis

Pes anserine bursitis is a condition that involves inflammation of the bursa located near the insertion point of the pes anserine tendons on the inside of the knee. The pes anserine tendons are a group of three tendons that attach to the shin bone and help to stabilize the knee joint.

It is also commonly associated with osteoarthritis, obesity, and diabetes.

Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome

Patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS) is a condition characterized by pain and discomfort in the front of the knee, specifically around the patella (kneecap) and femur (thigh bone) joint. It is a common cause of knee pain, especially in athletes and active individuals.

Symptoms of PFPS may include a dull ache or sharp pain in the front of the knee, especially when walking up or down stairs or hills, kneeling, or sitting for extended periods of time. A grinding or popping sensation may also occur when the knee is moved.

Chondromalacia Patella

Also known as patellofemoral syndrome, it is a common knee condition that involves damage or softening of the cartilage on the underside of the kneecap (patella). It can cause pain and discomfort in the front of the knee, especially when bending or squatting.

Housemaids Knees

The technical term is prepatellar bursitis, a condition characterized by inflammation and swelling of the bursa at the front of the knee, just above the kneecap. It is most commonly caused by repetitive kneeling or crawling, leading to irritation and damage to the bursa.

Bipartite Patella

A bipartite patella is a condition in which the kneecap (patella) comprises two separate bone fragments instead of a single bone. This occurs when the bone fragments that comprise the kneecap fail to fuse together during fetal development. The condition is most commonly found in males and is usually asymptomatic.

In some cases, a bipartite patella may cause pain or discomfort in the front of the knee, especially during activities that require bending or squatting. This is due to increased stress and pressure on the joint. In severe cases, the bone fragments may shift or become dislodged, leading to further pain and discomfort.

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